Categories
Astronomy

Answer the following questions after reviewing the “kepler’s laws and planetary

Answer the following questions after reviewing the “Kepler’s Laws and Planetary
Motion” and “Newton and Planetary Motion” background pages.

Categories
Astronomy

Three page research paper, mla, double spaced, 3 sources, and about astronomy (astronomy: exploring the structures and movements of our solar system and/or the patterns and meaning of the celestial realm) wrtiers desgression for sub topic.

Three Page Research paper, MLA, Double Spaced, 3 Sources, and about astronomy (Astronomy: Exploring the Structures and Movements of Our Solar System and/or The Patterns and Meaning of The Celestial Realm) Wrtiers desgression for sub topic.

Categories
Astronomy

All students mus include the following to pass my class : an essay on astronomy/space exploration, all students must include at least 5-7 sources and citations

All students mus include the following to pass my class : An essay on astronomy/space exploration, all students must include at least 5-7 sources and citations

Categories
Astronomy

Please answer the question in one page.

Please answer the question in one page. The citation should be put on a new page below the paragraph.

Categories
Astronomy

The paper must be in mla format.

Five-page paper on an astronomy topic : THE JOVIAN PLANETS.
In the paper, there must be a
Title page
A table of contents
A works cited page.
The paper must have five sources of research, such as from textbooks, websites, and journal articles.
The body of the paper must be five pages, not including the title page, table of contents, or your work cited page.
The paper must be in MLA format.
The 5 pages of the body should be about the JOVIAN PLANETS, all about them, what they are, what they mean, where they come from, why are they important, a description of each of them, anything and everything about the jovian planets but in a way that makes sense why we are talking about them!

Categories
Astronomy

Title page

Five-page paper on an astronomy topic : THE JOVIAN PLANETS.
In the paper, there must be a
Title page
A table of contents
A works cited page.
The paper must have five sources of research, such as from textbooks, websites, and journal articles.
The body of the paper must be five pages, not including the title page, table of contents, or your work cited page.
The paper must be in MLA format.
The 5 pages of the body should be about the JOVIAN PLANETS, all about them, what they are, what they mean, where they come from, why are they important, a description of each of them, anything and everything about the jovian planets but in a way that makes sense why we are talking about them!

Categories
Astronomy

What solutions are suggested, if any, for solving tensions between astronomers and mega constellation creators

https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2021-04-17/space-junk-like-overfishing-and-pollution-is-a-global-tragedy-of-the-commons
https://phys.org/news/2022-08-starlink-satellites-brightness-threshold.html

SpaceX goes all-in on Starship configuration for second-gen Starlink


After reading each article from each of the above three headings, write a 350-or-more word discussion post that includes all of the following…
three (3) things you learned from the articles
what forces the articles suggest are guiding the creation and propagation of satellite constellations
what solutions are suggested, if any, for solving tensions between astronomers and mega constellation creators
to what extent you think legislation should exist around the industrialization of space and why
Citations of the articles that informed your response (copy and paste from the list above). Citations do not contribute to word count.

Categories
Astronomy

However, the reason the above statistics are worthy of consideration is that many people believe that america provides (or should provide) equal opportunities for every person.

This assignment picks up from where the Podcast Reflection assignment in the last module left off. After listening to the podcast, many students described interest in learning more about how the field of physics and astronomy are implicated by the history of science; further, what the physicists and astronomers can do about it.
Dr. Chenjerai Kumanyika, a faculty member at Rutgers University describes that,
I think also we have to organize our advocacy work and our political work and our economic work around people that are the most vulnerable. And race is one way, not the only way, but one very important way to do that…This concept of race can help you identify and predict patterns of the things going on right now.
The American Institute of Physics has done just that. They have used statistics to trace who is getting physics and astronomy degrees in the United States over time, based on race (and also gender). This pattern-searching helps physicists and astronomers know the extent to which their disciplines are excluding persons based on race.
NOTE: Astrophysics is a disciplinary branch of physics and is why this assignment regards both astronomy and physics, not astronomy alone.
The Statistics
There are many ways to enter understanding the extent to which the fields of physics and astronomy are implicated by and implicating exclusions of persons based on their ethnicity and race.
Number of Bachelor’s Degrees Earned by African-Americans
One is by examining how physics & astronomy contrast with other physical sciences, in both the number of degrees awarded, and the change in these numbers over the time. In the table below, there are two major columns. The first is how many people overall earned undergraduate degrees in each physical science discipline, and the second is how many of those degrees were earned by those identifying as African American.
teamup1.JPG
Notice from the above statistics, note that…
from 2005 to 2015, astronomy saw a much larger growth in the number of African Americans earning astronomy degrees (67% increase) compared to physics degrees (4% increase)
in 2015, approximately 2% of all physics and astronomy degrees were awarded to African Americans (175/7,329 and 10/480).
Is awarding 2% of all undergraduate physics & astronomy degrees to African Americans reasonable? There are many ways to answer this question. However, the reason the above statistics are worthy of consideration is that many people believe that America provides (or should provide) equal opportunities for every person. There is an assumption that if there are equal opportunities, then the outcomes will be equal. To judge whether physics & astronomy is offering equal opportunities to African Americans, then it might be helpful to know the percentage of the United States Population identifying as Black in 2015 was 13% according to the U.S. Census. Links to an external site.The ratio of African Americans earning physics & astronomy degrees (2%) is not close to the 13% of persons in the United States identifying as Black, and so one might infer that there does not seem to be equal-opportunities/equal outcomes for all persons in the United States.
NOTE: Identifying as Black is not the same as identifying as African American. However, the only category the US Census has that might encompass African Americans is “Black” and so it is used as a rough estimate in the above narrative.
Comparing Statistics Between Number of Persons Excluded by their Ethnicity & Race (PEERs)
Another way to examine patterns in the demographics of physics & astronomy degrees over time is to compare whether there are general increases for all PEERs over time. If there are increases over time for all PEERs, then we can hope for the best – that the numbers of degrees earned will continue their upward climb toward equal outcomes while we (the scientific enterprise) continues to enact strategies that make our disciplines more inclusive. If not, then there might be something unique about physics & astronomy that is particularly exclusionary to some PEERs and not others. Indeed we see that this is the case.
teamup2.JPG
In the table above, Merner and Tyler (2019) make comparisons between shifts in undergraduate degrees earned by Black/African Americans and Hispanic persons, over two academic years, 1994-1995 and 2016-2017. In this table we see that the ratio between these two academic years (2016-2017 compared to 1994-1995) suggests that for Hispanics, the increase over time is greater in more recent years (the ratio is greater than 1). In contrast, the percent-increase is lower (ratio less than one) in recent years for all physical science and engineering Black/African Americans. The greatest drop in the percent increase in recent years is in physics degrees awarded to Black/African Americans. In reflection of this statistic, AIP cites that “In order to not lose ground [in comparison to other disciplines], physics would have to double the number of bachelor’s degrees awarded to African Americans.”
Source: Merner, L., & Tyler, J. (2019). African-American Participation Among Bachelors in the Physical Sciences and Engineering. Focus On report of the American Institute of Physics Statistical Research Center, August 2019. College Park, MD: American Institute of Physics. weblinkLinks to an external site.
The Report
The above statistics, and additional statistics about what to do to make physics & astronomy more inclusive are discussed in the American Institute of Physics TEAM-UP report titled, “The Time is Now: Systemic Changes to Increase African Americans with Bachelor’s Degrees in Physics and Astronomy.”
Click to Access the TEAM-UP reportLinks to an external site.✎ EditSign
While many of the data and recommendations provided in this report pertain to important changes that faculty (like me) and departments can and should exercise, as a student you might be especially interested in pages 25 – 32, which describe statistics & strategies that classmates can take to support their African American classmates.
You can also learn more about what to do to make physics & astronomy more welcoming to African American women by viewing this Module’s videos.
The Discussion
After reviewing the above statistics, report, and video, write a 250 or more word response to the following questions:
Do you think that the American Institute of Physics’s study on on the racial breakdown of physicists and astronomers in the United States is an important study to conduct?
From the provided resources in this module, what new thing did you learn about how the fields of physics and astronomy could improve their supports to persons of color in their disciplines
Include a citation, e.g., report page number, video minute-number. This citation shall not contribute to the word count.
https://www.aip.org/statistics/reports/african-american-participation-among-bachelors-physical-sciences-and-engineering

Categories
Astronomy

Discuss the effect of size, composition, and speed on the impact, giving examples, for at least 5 different impacts.

The following website models impacts that might occur in our solar system.
http://janus.astro.umd.edu/astro/impact/
Explore collisions that might occur on Earth. Change the size of the object (think about the sizes of objects around you–say a pea, an orange, a table, a house, a bus, and airplane, etc) and the composition (metal, rock, or ice), as well as the velocity. When you click “kaboom!” it will tell you what the effect is of an object that size hitting the Earth and how often such an impact is expected to occur. If there is an impact site on Earth that is known to be the result of this type of impact, it will list it. Discuss the effect of size, composition, and speed on the impact, giving examples, for at least 5 different impacts. At the end, discuss how likely you think it is that an impact could affect your life on Earth and how likely it is that an impact caused the extinction of the dinosaurs. Again, cite examples. Note that the program lists the effect and a location–this location is random and does not need to be recorded. If we know of an impact of this size, it will give you an example.

Categories
Astronomy

However, the reason the above statistics are worthy of consideration is that many people believe that america provides (or should provide) equal opportunities for every person.

This assignment picks up from where the Podcast Reflection assignment in the last module left off. After listening to the podcast, many students described interest in learning more about how the field of physics and astronomy are implicated by the history of science; further, what the physicists and astronomers can do about it.
Dr. Chenjerai Kumanyika, a faculty member at Rutgers University describes that,
I think also we have to organize our advocacy work and our political work and our economic work around people that are the most vulnerable. And race is one way, not the only way, but one very important way to do that…This concept of race can help you identify and predict patterns of the things going on right now.
The American Institute of Physics has done just that. They have used statistics to trace who is getting physics and astronomy degrees in the United States over time, based on race (and also gender). This pattern-searching helps physicists and astronomers know the extent to which their disciplines are excluding persons based on race.
NOTE: Astrophysics is a disciplinary branch of physics and is why this assignment regards both astronomy and physics, not astronomy alone.
The Statistics
There are many ways to enter understanding the extent to which the fields of physics and astronomy are implicated by and implicating exclusions of persons based on their ethnicity and race.
Number of Bachelor’s Degrees Earned by African-Americans
One is by examining how physics & astronomy contrast with other physical sciences, in both the number of degrees awarded, and the change in these numbers over the time. In the table below, there are two major columns. The first is how many people overall earned undergraduate degrees in each physical science discipline, and the second is how many of those degrees were earned by those identifying as African American.
teamup1.JPG
Notice from the above statistics, note that…
from 2005 to 2015, astronomy saw a much larger growth in the number of African Americans earning astronomy degrees (67% increase) compared to physics degrees (4% increase)
in 2015, approximately 2% of all physics and astronomy degrees were awarded to African Americans (175/7,329 and 10/480).
Is awarding 2% of all undergraduate physics & astronomy degrees to African Americans reasonable? There are many ways to answer this question. However, the reason the above statistics are worthy of consideration is that many people believe that America provides (or should provide) equal opportunities for every person. There is an assumption that if there are equal opportunities, then the outcomes will be equal. To judge whether physics & astronomy is offering equal opportunities to African Americans, then it might be helpful to know the percentage of the United States Population identifying as Black in 2015 was 13% according to the U.S. Census. Links to an external site.The ratio of African Americans earning physics & astronomy degrees (2%) is not close to the 13% of persons in the United States identifying as Black, and so one might infer that there does not seem to be equal-opportunities/equal outcomes for all persons in the United States.
NOTE: Identifying as Black is not the same as identifying as African American. However, the only category the US Census has that might encompass African Americans is “Black” and so it is used as a rough estimate in the above narrative.
Comparing Statistics Between Number of Persons Excluded by their Ethnicity & Race (PEERs)
Another way to examine patterns in the demographics of physics & astronomy degrees over time is to compare whether there are general increases for all PEERs over time. If there are increases over time for all PEERs, then we can hope for the best – that the numbers of degrees earned will continue their upward climb toward equal outcomes while we (the scientific enterprise) continues to enact strategies that make our disciplines more inclusive. If not, then there might be something unique about physics & astronomy that is particularly exclusionary to some PEERs and not others. Indeed we see that this is the case.
teamup2.JPG
In the table above, Merner and Tyler (2019) make comparisons between shifts in undergraduate degrees earned by Black/African Americans and Hispanic persons, over two academic years, 1994-1995 and 2016-2017. In this table we see that the ratio between these two academic years (2016-2017 compared to 1994-1995) suggests that for Hispanics, the increase over time is greater in more recent years (the ratio is greater than 1). In contrast, the percent-increase is lower (ratio less than one) in recent years for all physical science and engineering Black/African Americans. The greatest drop in the percent increase in recent years is in physics degrees awarded to Black/African Americans. In reflection of this statistic, AIP cites that “In order to not lose ground [in comparison to other disciplines], physics would have to double the number of bachelor’s degrees awarded to African Americans.”
Source: Merner, L., & Tyler, J. (2019). African-American Participation Among Bachelors in the Physical Sciences and Engineering. Focus On report of the American Institute of Physics Statistical Research Center, August 2019. College Park, MD: American Institute of Physics. weblinkLinks to an external site.
The Report
The above statistics, and additional statistics about what to do to make physics & astronomy more inclusive are discussed in the American Institute of Physics TEAM-UP report titled, “The Time is Now: Systemic Changes to Increase African Americans with Bachelor’s Degrees in Physics and Astronomy.”
Click to Access the TEAM-UP reportLinks to an external site.✎ EditSign
While many of the data and recommendations provided in this report pertain to important changes that faculty (like me) and departments can and should exercise, as a student you might be especially interested in pages 25 – 32, which describe statistics & strategies that classmates can take to support their African American classmates.
You can also learn more about what to do to make physics & astronomy more welcoming to African American women by viewing this Module’s videos.
The Discussion
After reviewing the above statistics, report, and video, write a 250 or more word response to the following questions:
Do you think that the American Institute of Physics’s study on on the racial breakdown of physicists and astronomers in the United States is an important study to conduct?
From the provided resources in this module, what new thing did you learn about how the fields of physics and astronomy could improve their supports to persons of color in their disciplines
Include a citation, e.g., report page number, video minute-number. This citation shall not contribute to the word count.
https://www.aip.org/statistics/reports/african-american-participation-among-bachelors-physical-sciences-and-engineering