Required Resources

Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Textbook: Chapter 8

Lesson

Minimum of 1 scholarly source

In your reference for this assignment, be sure to include both your text/class materials AND your outside reading(s).

Confidence Intervals

In everyday terms, a confidence interval is the range of values around a sample statistic (such as mean or proportion) within which clinicians can expect to get the same results if they repeat the study protocol or intervention, including measuring the same outcomes the same ways. As you ask yourself, “Will I get the same results if I use this research?”, you must address the precision of study findings, which is determined by the Confidence Interval. If the CI around the sample statistic is narrow, you can be confident you will get close to the same results if you implement the same research in your practice.

Consider the following example. Suppose that you did a systematic review of studies on the effect of tai chi exercise on sleep quality, and you found that tai chi affected sleep quality in older people. If, according to your study, you found the lower boundary of the CI to be .49, the study statistic to be 0.87, and the upper boundary to be 1.25, this would mean that each end limit is 0.38 from the sample statistic, which is a relatively narrow CI.

(UB + LB)/2 = Statistic [(1.25 + .49)/2 = .87]

Keep in mind that a mean difference of 0 indicates there is no difference; this CI does not contain 0. Therefore, the sample statistic is statistically significant and unlikely to occur by chance.

Because this was a systematic review, and tai chi exercise has been established from the studies you assessed as helping people sleep, based on the sample statistics and the CI, clinicians could now use your study and confidently include tai chi exercises among possible recommendations for patients who have difficulty sleeping.

Now you can apply your knowledge of CIs to create your own studies and make wise decisions about whether to base your patient care on a particular research finding.

Initial Post Instructions

Find an example of a confidence interval in the news, scholarly source or medical journal. Summarize the article/study. Does the article/study include the sample size and the level of confidence used to create the confidence interval? Explain what the confidence interval means in context of the news article or scholarly source.

Follow-Up Post Instructions

Respond to at least two peers or one peer and the instructor. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

Here are some suggested responses

How do you think the confidence interval that was presented in the study was calculated?

Explain the mathematical concepts could you extract from this article/study.

Textbook: https://openstax.org/details/books/introductory-business-statistics

# Category: Statistics

1. Create Your Dataset:

o Select a Population of Interest: The possibilities are endless. You could study sports teams, countries/states/counties, musical artists/albums, political figures, celebrities, CEOs, streaming services, national parks, etc. So long as you can find a variety of information about each observation using the Internet, you can study it.

o If Needed, Choose a Sampling Method and Select a Sample: Be specific about your population and decide whether you can study the whole population or if you’ll need to draw a sample. For example, if you are only interested in studying NFL quarterbacks who played in a regular-season game during the 2021 season, you might be able to create a dataset with of the whole population. If however, you are interested in all NFL quarterbacks who have ever played, you’ll need a way of selecting a sample (e.g., random sampling).

o Choose Variables to Collect: Whatever you choose to study, you’ll collect a variety of pieces of data about each. For example, if you were composing a dataset of NFL quarterbacks, you could record a variety of continuous (e.g., annual salary, average passing yards) and categorical (e.g., whether they are right- or left-handed) variables about each quarterback. Think ahead about what type of analyses you’d like to be able to perform. For example, if you want to look for correlations, you’ll need continuous variables. If you want to compare groups, you’ll need categorical variables that can be used for grouping. Locate the data using the Internet and organize it into a dataset using Microsoft Excel.

o Create a Codebook: Following the instructions in the tutorial and using appropriate statistical vocabulary, create a codebook describing each variable in your dataset. Include this as an appendix in your final deliverable for reference.

o Save your Dataset: Remember, you can’t save multiple worksheets using the comma separated values (.csv) file format. As such, save your dataset as a .csv file and also save your codebook in a separate, Excel workbook. Include your dataset as an appendix in your final deliverable.

2. Perform the Analysis using JASP: You’ll need to include your full set of JASP outputs as an appendix for your final deliverable. Be sure to save all JASP outputs as you perform them.

o Descriptive Statistics: Fully analyze the descriptive properties of your dataset. Produce frequency/descriptive statistics for each variable and look at the shape/spread/skew of the data. Investigate possible outliers.

o Inferential Statistics: Chapter 16 of your textbook reviews how to select analyses appropriate to the variables and describe the results of those findings. Use that chapter to select analyses appropriate to your research questions and variables. Perform inferential analyses using JASP and interpret the p-values in light of your research question and/or predictions.

3. Prepare Your Report: Using Microsoft Word, create a report of your project that includes the following sections.

1. Introduction: Summarizes the scope and purpose of your project. Explain why you chose the project and what you hope to learn from the data you compiled. Be sure to specify your main research questions. Summarize and cite the article you selected for the Week 5 Deliverable and use it to contextualize your topic.

2. Description of Sample & Data: Describe the sample and/or population studied. In detail, explain the rationale and sampling method used to obtain the data. Using accurate statistical vocabulary, describe each variable studied and a rationale for why it was included. Include an APA-formatted in-text citation and reference for each source (e.g., website, agency) from which data was obtained.

3. Descriptive Analysis: Include a descriptive statistics section similar to the descriptive statistics report you prepared during Week 3 but also integrating more recent concepts (e.g., confidence intervals, boxplots/outliers). Provide both detailed verbal interpretations and data visualizations to familiarize your reader with the dataset.

4. Inferential Analysis: Include an inferential statistics section reporting interesting and/or significant findings from your data. For each inferential analysis you perform, include the following: your predictions/hypotheses and rationale for your predictions, a justification of the appropriateness of the statistical test based on the characteristics of the variables analyzed and research question being tested, specifics of the analysis performed and variables involved (e.g., which variables were treated as outcomes/predictors), and verbal interpretation of results including applicable statistics. If possible, also include a data visualization of your findings (e.g., bar graph, scatterplot).

5. Discussion: Conclude with a one- to two-paragraph summary of your project with a focus on the findings and their application. Consider possible implications (e.g., for personal decision making or policy) of your project. Remember, your job, as the statistician, is not just to state the statistical findings but to interpret them for your reader. Think critically, as a statistician, when offering interpretations for trends in your data.

6. References & Appendices: At the end of your deliverable, include APA-formatted references to all websites and other resources from which data were obtained as well as any articles referenced. Also, include an appendix section and include your codebook, dataset, and full JASP Outputs. Note, the instructor needs these materials to assess the accuracy of your statistical decision making and verbal interpretations.

calculating the main data from the project comes from this article,

https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2022/10/05/more-americans-are-joining-the-cashless-economy/ I have completed questions 1 . there are links in the question to take you to the useable tool to get the answers. if not this site will help with the math involved and it does not need a login. https://www.utdanacenter.org/our-work/higher-education/curricular-resources-higher-education/dcmp-data-analysis-tools

Pleas find in the enclosed folder the assignment requirements.

You are required to submit the document file (typed or handwritten) containing the solution via moodle by October 12th at 3:00 p.m. Show in all cases the formulas you used (do not merely copy the final result from your calculator, but show clearly how the result has been obtained).

Please note that if you take pictures of your handwritten notes, they must be submitted as a single pdf file, containing all the pages in order. The filename must contain the surname(s) of the author(s) of the assignment.

Please be advised that a cut-off time has been set for this assignment and late submissions will not be accepted/graded.

1. Create Your Dataset:

o Select a Population of Interest: The possibilities are endless. You could study sports teams, countries/states/counties, musical artists/albums, political figures, celebrities, CEOs, streaming services, national parks, etc. So long as you can find a variety of information about each observation using the Internet, you can study it.

o If Needed, Choose a Sampling Method and Select a Sample: Be specific about your population and decide whether you can study the whole population or if you’ll need to draw a sample. For example, if you are only interested in studying NFL quarterbacks who played in a regular-season game during the 2021 season, you might be able to create a dataset with of the whole population. If however, you are interested in all NFL quarterbacks who have ever played, you’ll need a way of selecting a sample (e.g., random sampling).

o Choose Variables to Collect: Whatever you choose to study, you’ll collect a variety of pieces of data about each. For example, if you were composing a dataset of NFL quarterbacks, you could record a variety of continuous (e.g., annual salary, average passing yards) and categorical (e.g., whether they are right- or left-handed) variables about each quarterback. Think ahead about what type of analyses you’d like to be able to perform. For example, if you want to look for correlations, you’ll need continuous variables. If you want to compare groups, you’ll need categorical variables that can be used for grouping. Locate the data using the Internet and organize it into a dataset using Microsoft Excel.

o Create a Codebook: Following the instructions in the tutorial and using appropriate statistical vocabulary, create a codebook describing each variable in your dataset. Include this as an appendix in your final deliverable for reference.

o Save your Dataset: Remember, you can’t save multiple worksheets using the comma separated values (.csv) file format. As such, save your dataset as a .csv file and also save your codebook in a separate, Excel workbook. Include your dataset as an appendix in your final deliverable.

2. Perform the Analysis using JASP: You’ll need to include your full set of JASP outputs as an appendix for your final deliverable. Be sure to save all JASP outputs as you perform them.

o Descriptive Statistics: Fully analyze the descriptive properties of your dataset. Produce frequency/descriptive statistics for each variable and look at the shape/spread/skew of the data. Investigate possible outliers.

o Inferential Statistics: Chapter 16 of your textbook reviews how to select analyses appropriate to the variables and describe the results of those findings. Use that chapter to select analyses appropriate to your research questions and variables. Perform inferential analyses using JASP and interpret the p-values in light of your research question and/or predictions.

3. Prepare Your Report: Using Microsoft Word, create a report of your project that includes the following sections.

1. Introduction: Summarizes the scope and purpose of your project. Explain why you chose the project and what you hope to learn from the data you compiled. Be sure to specify your main research questions. Summarize and cite the article you selected for the Week 5 Deliverable and use it to contextualize your topic.

2. Description of Sample & Data: Describe the sample and/or population studied. In detail, explain the rationale and sampling method used to obtain the data. Using accurate statistical vocabulary, describe each variable studied and a rationale for why it was included. Include an APA-formatted in-text citation and reference for each source (e.g., website, agency) from which data was obtained.

3. Descriptive Analysis: Include a descriptive statistics section similar to the descriptive statistics report you prepared during Week 3 but also integrating more recent concepts (e.g., confidence intervals, boxplots/outliers). Provide both detailed verbal interpretations and data visualizations to familiarize your reader with the dataset.

4. Inferential Analysis: Include an inferential statistics section reporting interesting and/or significant findings from your data. For each inferential analysis you perform, include the following: your predictions/hypotheses and rationale for your predictions, a justification of the appropriateness of the statistical test based on the characteristics of the variables analyzed and research question being tested, specifics of the analysis performed and variables involved (e.g., which variables were treated as outcomes/predictors), and verbal interpretation of results including applicable statistics. If possible, also include a data visualization of your findings (e.g., bar graph, scatterplot).

5. Discussion: Conclude with a one- to two-paragraph summary of your project with a focus on the findings and their application. Consider possible implications (e.g., for personal decision making or policy) of your project. Remember, your job, as the statistician, is not just to state the statistical findings but to interpret them for your reader. Think critically, as a statistician, when offering interpretations for trends in your data.

6. References & Appendices: At the end of your deliverable, include APA-formatted references to all websites and other resources from which data were obtained as well as any articles referenced. Also, include an appendix section and include your codebook, dataset, and full JASP Outputs. Note, the instructor needs these materials to assess the accuracy of your statistical decision making and verbal interpretations.

Pleas find in the enclosed folder the assignment requirements.

You are required to submit the document file (typed or handwritten) containing the solution via moodle by October 12th at 3:00 p.m. Show in all cases the formulas you used (do not merely copy the final result from your calculator, but show clearly how the result has been obtained).

Please note that if you take pictures of your handwritten notes, they must be submitted as a single pdf file, containing all the pages in order. The filename must contain the surname(s) of the author(s) of the assignment.

Please be advised that a cut-off time has been set for this assignment and late submissions will not be accepted/graded.

calculating the main data from the project comes from this article,

https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2022/10/05/more-americans-are-joining-the-cashless-economy/ I have completed questions 1 . there are links in the question to take you to the useable tool to get the answers. if not this site will help with the math involved and it does not need a login. https://www.utdanacenter.org/our-work/higher-education/curricular-resources-higher-education/dcmp-data-analysis-tools

## Manuscript

Manuscript

I conducted a research on whether music affects your health/mood. Conducted a survey to collect data, entered data into Spss

## Manuscript

Manuscript

I conducted a research on whether music affects your health/mood. Conducted a survey to collect data, entered data into Spss

*RESEARCH METHODS* !!! For this project, you will read, describe, and evaluate an article evaluating the efficacy of online training for reducing social phobias. The objective is to sharpen your skills in evaluating research. For this assignment, please consider their primary outcome measures.